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Water Softening Solutions and Systems

PWTSA Water Softening Solutions and Systems is a process used to remove calcium, magnesium and certain other metal cations in hard water so to become more compatible with soap and reduces geyser element and hot water system scaling (to extend the lifetime of plumbing).

An ion-exchange water softener consists of a resin tank and a brine tank. As water passes through the resin bed, the hardness mineral ions in the water are exchanged for sodium (or potassium) ions. When the resin is saturated with hardness minerals, the system goes through a regeneration cycle that flushes brine solution through the resin bed, exchanging the hardness mineral ions with sodium ions. The hardness minerals are then washed down the drain, leaving the resin ready to go through the process again.

After the water softener treats the water, the water enters the household water supply as soft water. Softened water will contain either sodium or potassium, depending on which is used in the softening process. Sodium is more readily available and less expensive than potassium, but there are concerns about the additional sodium intake, particularly for anyone on a low-sodium diet.

Another concern is the environmental effects of releasing large amounts of salt into the wastewater supply during the regeneration cycle. The use of potassium is considered to be a more environmentally friendly option, and it removes the health concerns associated with salt-based systems.